Analysis of the Mechanical and Physical Behaviors of 3D-Printed PEEK Structures under Different Parameters


Fahri Murat
Osman Yavuz
Muhammed Sefa Temel
İsmail Hakkı Korkmaz
İrfan Kaymaz


In this study, the mechanical and physical properties of polyetheretherketone (PEEK) material produced through three-dimensional (3D) printing under different production parameters were investigated. For this purpose, the results obtained by applying heat treatment to the produced samples were examined. Comparisons based on mechanical properties were supported by 3D surface profiles and XRD analyses. According to the obtained results, low nozzle diameter and high printing temperature led to an increase of up to 8% in the elastic modulus and up to 33% in tensile strength of the samples. The heat treatment applied in the study increased tensile strength by up to 8% and elastic modulus by up to 9% in samples produced with a low-diameter nozzle. In conclusion, this study aims to provide a dataset for 3D PEEK designs, intending to enhance the performance of PEEK materials that can be used in medical and industrial applications.


How to Cite
Murat, F., Yavuz, O., Temel, M. S. ., Korkmaz, İsmail H., & Kaymaz, İrfan. (2024). Analysis of the Mechanical and Physical Behaviors of 3D-Printed PEEK Structures under Different Parameters. International Journal of Pioneering Technology and Engineering, 3(01), 01–06.


  1. Zheng, C., Zhao, H., Zhou, Z., Geng, Z., and Cui, Z., 2022, Investigation on thermal model updating of Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer in orbit based on Kriging meta-modeling, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section A: Accelerators, Spectrometers, Detectors and Associated Equipment, 1031: 166581.
  2. Chen, Z., Chen, Y., Ding, J., and Yu, L., 2023, Blending strategy to modify PEEK-based orthopedic implants, Composites Part B: Engineering, 250: 110427.
  3. Kang, J., Tian, Y., Zheng, J., Lu, D., Cai, K., Wang, L., and Li, D., 2022, Functional design and biomechanical evaluation of 3D printing PEEK flexible implant for chest wall reconstruction, Computer Methods and Programs in Biomedicine, 225: 107105.
  4. Wei, X., Zhou, W., Tang, Z., Wu, H., Liu, Y., Dong, H., Wang, N., Huang, H., Bao, S., and Shi, L., 2023, Magnesium surface-activated 3D printed porous PEEK scaffolds for in vivo osseointegration by promoting angiogenesis and osteogenesis, Bioactive Materials, 20: 16-28.
  5. Ouldyerou, A., Merdji, A., Aminallah, L., Roy, S., Mehboob, H., and Özcan, M., 2022, Biomechanical performance of Ti-PEEK dental implants in bone: An in-silico analysis, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 134: 105422.
  6. Bozoğlu, Ü.Ç., Kiremitçi, A., Yurtsever, M.Ç., and Gümüşderelioğlu, M., 2022, Peek dental implants coated with boron-doped nano-hydroxyapatites: Investigation of in-vitro osteogenic activity, Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 73: 127026.
  7. Sonaye, S.Y., Bokam, V.K., Saini, A., Nayak, V.V., Witek, L., Coelho, P.G., Bhaduri, S.B., Bottino, M.C., and Sikder, P., 2022, Patient-specific 3D printed Poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) dental implant system, Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials, 136: 105510.
  8. Lee, A., Wynn, M., Quigley, L., Salviato, M., and Zobeiry, N., 2022, Effect of temperature history during additive manufacturing on crystalline morphology of PEEK, Advances in Industrial and Manufacturing Engineering, 4: 100085.
  9. Yang, W.-f., Choi, W.S., Wong, M.C.-M., Powcharoen, W., Zhu, W.-y., Tsoi, J.K.-H., Chow, M., Kwok, K.-W., and Su, Y.-x., 2021, Three-dimensionally printed patient-specific surgical plates increase accuracy of oncologic head and neck reconstruction versus conventional surgical plates: a comparative study, Annals of surgical oncology, 28(1): 363-375.
  10. Su, Y., He, J., Jiang, N., Zhang, H., Wang, L., Liu, X., Li, D., and Yin, Z., 2020, Additively-manufactured poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) lattice scaffolds with uniform microporous architectures for enhanced cellular response and soft tissue adhesion, Materials & Design, 191: 108671.
  11. Petersmann, S., Smith, J.A., Schäfer, U., and Arbeiter, F., 2023, Material extrusion-based additive manufacturing of polyetheretherketone cranial implants: Mechanical performance and print quality, Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 22: 642-657.
  12. Wang, P., Zou, B., Xiao, H., Ding, S., and Huang, C., 2019, Effects of printing parameters of fused deposition modeling on mechanical properties, surface quality, and microstructure of PEEK, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 271: 62-74.
  13. Rinaldi, M., Ghidini, T., Cecchini, F., Brandao, A., and Nanni, F., 2018, Additive layer manufacturing of poly (ether ether ketone) via FDM, Composites Part B: Engineering, 145: 162-172.
  14. Yang, C., Tian, X., Li, D., Cao, Y., Zhao, F., and Shi, C., 2017, Influence of thermal processing conditions in 3D printing on the crystallinity and mechanical properties of PEEK material, Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 248: 1-7.
  15. Wu, W., Geng, P., Li, G., Zhao, D., Zhang, H., and Zhao, J., 2015, Influence of layer thickness and raster angle on the mechanical properties of 3D-printed PEEK and a comparative mechanical study between PEEK and ABS, Materials, 8(9): 5834-5846.
  16. Honigmann, P., Sharma, N., Okolo, B., Popp, U., Msallem, B., and Thieringer, F.M., 2018, Patient-specific surgical implants made of 3D printed PEEK: material, technology, and scope of surgical application, BioMed research international, 2018.
  17. Sommacal, S., Matschinski, A., Holmes, J., Drechsler, K., and Compston, P., 2023, Detailed void characterisation by X-ray computed tomography of material extrusion 3D printed carbon fibre/PEEK, Composite Structures, 308: 116635.
  18. Chen, M.J., Pappas, G.A., Massella, D., Schlothauer, A., Motta, S.E., Falk, V., Cesarovic, N., and Ermanni, P., 2023, Tailoring crystallinity for hemocompatible and durable PEEK cardiovascular implants, Biomaterials advances, 146: 213288.
  19. Wang, L., He, H., Yang, X., Zhang, Y., Xiong, S., Wang, C., Yang, X., Chen, B., and Wang, Q., 2021, Bimetallic ions regulated PEEK of bone implantation for antibacterial and osteogenic activities, Materials Today Advances, 12: 100162.
  20. Wu, T., Huan, X., Zhang, H., Wu, L., Sui, G., and Yang, X., 2023, The orientation and inhomogeneous distribution of carbon nanofibers and distinctive internal structure in polymer composites induced by 3D-printing enabling electromagnetic shielding regulation, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, 638: 392-402.
  21. Zarean, P., Malgaroli, P., Zarean, P., Seiler, D., de Wild, M., Thieringer, F.M., and Sharma, N., 2023, Effect of printing parameters on mechanical performance of material-extrusion 3D-printed PEEK specimens at the Point-of-care, Applied Sciences, 13(3): 1230.
  22. Khakyasheva, E.V., Shabaev, A.S., Khashirova, S.Y., Shetov, R.A., and Aloev, V., 2019, The effect of PEEK drying modes on thermal stability, Key Engineering Materials, 816: 67-71.
  23. Li, Y. and Lou, Y., 2020, Tensile and bending strength improvements in PEEK parts using fused deposition modelling 3D printing considering multi-factor coupling, Polymers, 12(11): 2497.
  24. Properties, A.S.D.o.M., 2022, Standard Test Method for Tensile Properties of Plastics, American Society for Testing and Materials.
  25. Wang, P., Zou, B., Ding, S., Huang, C., Shi, Z., Ma, Y., and Yao, P., 2020, Preparation of short CF/GF reinforced PEEK composite filaments and their comprehensive properties evaluation for FDM-3D printing, Composites Part B: Engineering, 198: 108175.
  26. Chai, L., Zhang, B., Qiao, L., Wang, P., and Weng, L., 2021, Influence of gamma irradiation-induced surface oxidation on tribological property of polyetheretherketone (PEEK), Polymer Bulletin: 1-19.
  27. Song, C.-H., Choi, J.-W., Jeon, Y.-C., Jeong, C.-M., Lee, S.-H., Kang, E.-S., Yun, M.-J., and Huh, J.-B., 2018, Comparison of the microtensile bond strength of a polyetherketoneketone (PEKK) tooth post cemented with various surface treatments and various resin cements, Materials, 11(6): 916.